Review of the effectiveness of biofeedback for treating Bruxism

A new study published this week (January 2023) suggests that biofeedback may be an effective treatment option for individuals suffering from bruxism (teeth grinding) during the day.

Understanding Biofeedback Devices for Bruxism

What are biofeedback devices, and how do they work for bruxism treatment?
Can biofeedback devices effectively detect teeth grinding and clenching?

The study, which was a systematic review of existing research on the topic, found that biofeedback, specifically auditory and visual biofeedback, can reduce the level of masticatory muscle activity in individuals with bruxism.

However, it’s important to note that the studies included in this review had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes, which limits the strength of the findings.

Additionally, the study suggests that future research should have larger sample sizes and be conducted with high methodological standards to avoid important bias associated with inappropriate randomization, blinding, and deviations from intended interventions.

Furthermore, it is recommended that future studies should also look into other clinically relevant outcomes such as pain, quality of life, and disability.

Types and Features of Biofeedback Devices

What types of biofeedback devices are available for bruxism, and how do they differ?
What features should be considered when choosing a biofeedback device for bruxism?

Biofeedback devices for bruxism come in various forms, each with unique features and methods of operation.

Common types include wearable sensors that detect muscle activity in the jaw and devices that emit audible or tactile signals when teeth grinding is detected. These signals are meant to train the user to stop grinding or clenching in response.

Some devices are designed to be worn overnight, tracking and recording bruxism episodes, while others are intended for daytime use to increase awareness of clenching habits.

The features to consider include the comfort of the device, its sensitivity to detect grinding or clenching, ease of use, data tracking capabilities, and whether it offers real-time feedback.

Effectiveness and Clinical Evidence

How effective are biofeedback devices in reducing the symptoms of bruxism?
What does current research say about the success rate of biofeedback therapy for bruxism?

Biofeedback devices for bruxism have shown varying degrees of effectiveness, but the overall consensus is that they can be beneficial for some individuals. These devices work by providing real-time feedback to the user, helping them become aware of their clenching or grinding habits, especially during sleep. This awareness allows them to modify their behavior over time, potentially reducing the frequency and intensity of bruxism episodes.

Clinical studies and research on these devices have generally been positive, though they note that results can vary widely among individuals. Some studies have reported a significant reduction in teeth grinding and an improvement in sleep quality among users. However, the effectiveness often depends on consistent use and the individual’s responsiveness to biofeedback.

It’s also important to note that while biofeedback therapy can be a useful tool, it may not be a complete solution for everyone. It is often recommended as part of a comprehensive treatment approach that may include stress management, dental interventions, and lifestyle changes. The key to success with biofeedback devices often lies in personal commitment and the integration of the therapy into a broader treatment plan.

Usage and Application

How are biofeedback devices for bruxism used, and what is the recommended duration and frequency of use?
Can biofeedback devices be used during sleep, or are they more suited for daytime use?

Biofeedback devices for bruxism are typically used in one of two ways: during sleep or during waking hours, and their usage depends on the specific type of device and the individual’s needs.

  1. Usage During Sleep:
    • Many biofeedback devices are designed to be worn at night. These devices often come in the form of headbands, mouthpieces, or small sensors that attach to the jaw or temples.
    • The device detects the muscle activity associated with grinding or clenching and then provides a feedback signal, which could be a gentle vibration or sound, to disrupt and reduce the bruxism behavior.
    • For nighttime use, it’s generally recommended to use the device every night for a prolonged period, as consistency is key to retraining the jaw muscles and reducing bruxism episodes. The exact duration can vary, but users might start seeing improvements within a few weeks to a few months.
  2. Daytime Use:
    • Some biofeedback devices are designed for daytime use to increase awareness of clenching habits. These devices can be more discreet and may use vibration or sound signals when clenching is detected.
    • The recommended duration and frequency of daytime use can vary based on the individual’s level of bruxism and the device’s specific instructions. Generally, these devices are used for several hours during the day, particularly during times of stress or concentration when clenching is more likely.

In both cases, the key to effectiveness is regular, consistent use as directed by the device’s guidelines. Continuous use helps in training the brain to become aware of unconscious grinding or clenching habits and gradually reduce them. It’s important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and consult with a healthcare provider to ensure the device is used safely and effectively.

Patient Experiences and Feedback

What have been the experiences and feedback of patients who have used biofeedback devices for bruxism?
Are there any common themes in user testimonials regarding the effectiveness and usability of these devices?

Patients who have used biofeedback devices for bruxism have shared a range of experiences and feedback, with some noticing significant benefits while others have faced challenges.

One of the common biofeedback devices used for bruxism is a biofeedback headband. This device typically starts with daytime training, where the user wears the headband for short sessions, intentionally clenching or grinding their teeth to trigger the biofeedback sound. This sound cues the user to relax their jaw. Over time, the goal is for this relaxation response to become instinctive, even during sleep. The device tracks the frequency and duration of clenching episodes, allowing users to monitor their progress. While many find the device simple to use and appreciate its non-invasive, drug-free nature, some drawbacks include potential sleep disruption due to the audible alarms it emits during the night.

The effectiveness of biofeedback headbands for bruxism has been studied, with about 75% of people in a clinical trial reporting a significant decrease in nightly clenching through continued use. However, it’s important to note that the therapy may not be suitable for everyone, and its success can vary from person to person. The cost of a biofeedback headband ranges from $200 to $400, and some companies offer a rental option or a money-back guarantee for those who want to try the device with less commitment.

It’s also worth considering other treatments for bruxism, such as custom mouth guards, Botox injections, muscle relaxants, and stress management techniques. Each of these treatments has its own set of pros and cons, and what works best can vary depending on the individual’s specific circumstances and needs.

In summary, while biofeedback devices offer a promising avenue for some bruxism sufferers, it’s essential to explore all available options and consult healthcare professionals to find the most effective and suitable treatment plan​


Vieira MdA, Oliveira-Souza AISd, Hahn G, Bähr L, Armijo-Olivo S, Ferreira APdL. Effectiveness of Biofeedback in Individuals with Awake Bruxism Compared to Other Types of Treatment: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(2):1558.